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In computer science, after basic hardware, language comes first, before operating systems, applications, or anything else. One needs a language first, even if only machine language, before one can write any software at all. There is a vast variety of programming languages, estimates run from 2,000 to 6,000. The situation is often likened to the many schisms of some religions, and sometimes disagreements and even fights occur among the faithful. Yet, all languages must adhere to the central unifying principles of computer science (even Intercal and Befunge), otherwise they couldn't work. On this page, languages are arranged in three groups and levels: 1) Top: issues spanning multiple unrelated languages. 2) Middle: types or classes of languages. 3) Bottom: specific languages, with their own directory category.
Categories
ABC
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Ada
Ada83, Advocacy and Comparisons, Articles, ... 159 Sites
ADL
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Algol 60
No sub-categories 9 Sites
Algol 68
No sub-categories 21 Sites
APL
Books, Conferences, Consultants, Interest, ... 50 Sites
ARB
No sub-categories 4 Sites
Assembly
370, 68k, Amiga, MIX-MMIX, x86, Z80 105 Sites
Awk
No sub-categories 14 Sites
BASIC
BBC BASIC, BlitzBasic, Business BASIC, DarkBasic, ... 105 Sites
Befunge
No sub-categories 8 Sites
BETA
No sub-categories 7 Sites
Bigwig
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Blue
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Brainfuck
No sub-categories 19 Sites
C
Articles, Books, C--, CGI, Compilers, Cyclone, ... 1,022 Sites
C++
Books, C++Builder, Class Libraries, Companies, ... 563 Sites
C-sharp
Articles, Books, Commercial Services, ... 67 Sites
Cg
No sub-categories 2 Sites
CHILL
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Clarion
Developers, Third-Party Templates and Utilities 23 Sites
Clean
No sub-categories 4 Sites
Clipper
Implementations 14 Sites
CLU
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Cobol
Commercial Products and Services, Compilers, ... 66 Sites
CobolScript
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Cocoa
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Comparison and Review
Humor 56 Sites
Concurrent
No sub-categories 16 Sites
Constraint
No sub-categories 26 Sites
Curl
Chats and Forums, Code Samples, Conferences, ... 16 Sites
Curly Bracket
No sub-categories 1 Sites
D
Articles, Software, Weblogs 259 Sites
Database
No sub-categories 1 Sites
DATABUS
No sub-categories 4 Sites
Dataflow
No sub-categories 5 Sites
Data Structured
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Declarative
No sub-categories 4 Sites
Delphi
ActiveX, Add-Ons, Books, Commercial Services, ... 199 Sites
Directories
No sub-categories 8 Sites
E
No sub-categories 191 Sites
Education
No sub-categories 4 Sites
Eiffel
Books, Compilers, Eiffel-sharp, ... 31 Sites
ElastiC
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Erlang
Conferences, Contributions, Examples, ... 137 Sites
Euphoria
No sub-categories 13 Sites
Forth
Books, Companies, FAQs, Help, and Tutorials, ... 115 Sites
Fortran
Books, Compilers, FAQs, Help, and Tutorials, History, ... 540 Sites
Fortress
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Frontier
FAQs, Help, and Tutorials, Manila, Radio, Suites 18 Sites
Functional
Research, User Groups 48 Sites
Garbage Collected
Object-Oriented, Procedural 4 Sites
GLSL
No sub-categories 9 Sites
Goedel
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Haskell
Editor Modes and Style Files, ... 41 Sites
HLSL
No sub-categories 7 Sites
ICI
No sub-categories 2 Sites
Icon
No sub-categories 7 Sites
IDL
No sub-categories 4 Sites
Intercal
No sub-categories 11 Sites
Interface
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Interpreted
Bytecode, Functional, Multiparadigm, Object-Oriented, ... 10 Sites
Io
No sub-categories 5 Sites
Java
Applets, Applications, Chats and Forums, ... 2,511 Sites
JavaScript
AJAX, Books, Conferences, Directories, ... 888 Sites
Jovial
No sub-categories 4 Sites
LabVIEW
3rd Party Hardware and Software, ... 49 Sites
Language-OS Hybrids
TUNES 7 Sites
Leda
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Limbo
No sub-categories 7 Sites
Lisp
Arc, Books, Clojure, CLOS, Compilers and Interpreters, ... 341 Sites
Logic-based
Constraint Logic, Functional Logic 42 Sites
Lua
Tools 19 Sites
m4
No sub-categories 2 Sites
Mercury
NET 1 Sites
Miranda
No sub-categories 9 Sites
Miva
Editors and Clip Libraries, Miva Merchant 33 Sites
ML
Caml, Implementations, NET, Objective Caml, ... 34 Sites
Modula-2
Compilers 32 Sites
Modula-3
Compilers 4 Sites
Moto
No sub-categories 2 Sites
Multiparadigm
No sub-categories 15 Sites
Mumps
No sub-categories 12 Sites
Oberon
Articles, Books, Compilers, Component Pascal, ... 29 Sites
Obfuscated
No sub-categories 16 Sites
Object-Oriented
Class-based, Magazines and E-zines, Prototype-based, ... 29 Sites
Objective-C
Compilers and Environments 11 Sites
Occam
Java 11 Sites
Off-side Rule
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Open Source
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Oz
No sub-categories 5 Sites
Pascal
Borland, Compilers, FAQs, Help, and Tutorials, ... 42 Sites
Perl
Chats and Forums, Commercial Services, Conferences, ... 560 Sites
PHP
Commercial Services, Development Tools, ... 906 Sites
Pike
No sub-categories 6 Sites
PL
PL-I, PL-M 72 Sites
PL-SQL
Developer Tools 21 Sites
Pliant
No sub-categories 5 Sites
POP-11
No sub-categories 6 Sites
Procedural
No sub-categories 15 Sites
Prograph
Prograph CPX, Mac 19 Sites
Prolog
Implementations 56 Sites
Proteus
No sub-categories 2 Sites
Python
Articles and Reviews, Books, Commercial Services, ... 336 Sites
REBOL
Chats and Forums, Databases, Development Tools, ... 66 Sites
Refal
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Reflective
No sub-categories 2 Sites
Regular Expressions
C and C++, FAQs, Help, and Tutorials, Java, Perl, ... 100 Sites
Rexx
ARexx, Extensions, FAQs, Help, and Tutorials, ... 139 Sites
Rigal
No sub-categories 1 Sites
RPG
No sub-categories 8 Sites
Ruby
Articles, Books, Conferences, ... 179 Sites
Rust
No sub-categories 5 Sites
S-Lang
No sub-categories 1 Sites
SAS
Consultants, User Groups 23 Sites
Sather
No sub-categories 8 Sites
Scripting
Object-Oriented, Procedural 27 Sites
SETL
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Shading Languages
No sub-categories 6 Sites
Simkin
No sub-categories 5 Sites
Simula
No sub-categories 6 Sites
Sisal
No sub-categories 9 Sites
Smalltalk
Bistro, Books, Directories, Dolphin, ... 143 Sites
Snobol
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Specification
No sub-categories 9 Sites
SQL
Chats and Forums, FAQs, Help, and Tutorials 40 Sites
Synchronous
No sub-categories 5 Sites
T3X
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Tcl-Tk
Extensions, IDE, Internet, Software, Wrappers, XOTcl 75 Sites
Tempo
No sub-categories 1 Sites
TOM
No sub-categories 2 Sites
TRAC
No sub-categories 2 Sites
Transcript
No sub-categories 16 Sites
Turing
No sub-categories 1 Sites
Visual
Books, Conferences 241 Sites
Visual Basic
Add-Ins, Chats and Forums, COM, Commercial Services, ... 179 Sites
Visual FoxPro
Commercial Services, User Groups 39 Sites
Water
No sub-categories 3 Sites
Wirth
No sub-categories 4 Sites
YAFL
No sub-categories 2 Sites
Yorick
No sub-categories 4 Sites
Z
Books 9 Sites
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