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This category holds web pages and sites that compare two or more programming languages, on one or more variable, via text, feature lists, tables, code samples, equations, pictures, jokes, or any other means, sensible or nonsensical. To qualify for this page, submissions must be about, and of interest to, those interested in, more than one language. On this page, languages are arranged in three groups and levels: 1) Top group: issues spanning multiple unrelated languages. 2) Middle group: components, frameworks. 3) Bottom group: specific languages, with their own category.
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What I Hate About Your Programming Language - Text treats general aspects of language choices, then compares hatred of Perl, Python, Ruby, PHP, Java, C, C++, JavaScript, XSLT, SQL. With many forum comments. [ONLamp.com] Programming Language Comparison - Table and text compares many features of some popular object-oriented languages: C++, C#, Eiffel, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk, Visual Basic. Programming Information from HB - Text descriptions compare C/C++, Java, Pascal, Basic, VeraStream; Oracle; HTML, XML; JavaScript, PHP. The Quine Page - Collection of self-reproducing programs: each outputs a copy of its own source code; about 60 languages. Four-fold Increase in Productivity and Quality - Published internal study, of Ericsson AXD 301 ATM switch project, using Erlang, C, C++, Java. Results: programmer productivity, code error rates, roughly proportional to source code size. Reasons for TOM - TOM attempts to address flaws in these languages: C++, Cecil, Common Lisp, Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Smalltalk. PLEAC: Programming Language Examples Alike Cookbook - Suite of common programming problems solved in Ada, C++, Erlang, Guile, Haskell, Java, Masd, merd, NASM, Objective Caml, Perl, Pliant, Python, Ruby, Tcl. A Comparative Overview of C# - Also compares C#, Java, C++. By Ben Albahari. Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language - Brian Kernighan's comparison of Pascal and C Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organizations - Multipage study compares: 4GL/5GL, 3GL (Ada 95, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Smalltalk), 2GL (Assembly). Divides language (definition) from traits of products that implement and support it. Several sections, tables, appendixes. CLOS, Eiffel, and Sather: A Comparison - References, zipped Postscript, and inlined gifs. Ada 95, Java, and C++ - Some think Java is like C++. Usual C++ idioms do not apply to Java as it is not a C++ superset or subset; Java is a derivation with many modifications, extensions. Both language syntax are alike, but semantics and philosophy are very different. Java is nearer Ada 95 than C++, except in syntax. Ada, C, C++, and Java vs. The Steelman - Compares 4 programming languages (Ada 95, C, C++, Java) with the needs of "Steelman", original 1978 requirements document for Ada language. Big detailed table. What's Wrong with Perl - Author explains what he considers wrong about Perl, presents Python as an alternative. Descriptions, code samples, links. The BNF Web Club Language - Browse, explore some programming language syntax rules, see relations between rules, understand them via BNF (Backus-Naur Form notation) and syntactic diagrams: SQL, PL/SQL, SQL2, IDL; Ada 95, Java, Modula-2; Lazy, Lisp, M5. Programming Languages Mini-howto - Briefly compares major Linux programming languages: C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl; by Risto S. Varanka. TMXxine Languages - Brief comparison Curl with High Level assembler, BCX, Dark Basic, Mono (C#/.Net implementation), Python, Squeak, XBasic/XBlite. Curl applet examples. 99 Bottles of Beer on the Wall - Shows source code implementation for the same simple program across over 250 different programming languages. Comparisons of Tcl with Other Systems - Many comparisons between Tcl/Tk and other similar systems, most copied from comp.lang.tcl. The C Family of Languages - Interview with Dennis Ritchie, Bjarne Stroustrup, James Gosling. The Case against C - Five short essays compare C (and C++ by extension) to Fortran: Why C is Not a Good Numerical Language, Why C is Not a Good First Language, C's Poor Loop Constructs, C's Pointers and Optimisation, Optimisation through Directives. Languages Versus D - Growing table compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, Delphi, Python, Perl, Eiffel, Sather, Smalltalk, Lisp/CLOS, Ada. Many clarifying comments below. [Wiki4D, Open Content] Schizoid Classes: Of Class, Type, and Method - Compares Java and Smalltalk, in text and table. By Rodney Bates. [ACM Queue] Programming Language Benchmarks - Compares the same program in Ada, C, Forth, FORTRAN, Java, Lisp, Perl, R, Ruby. Goal: support decisions in language choice for making compute-intensive Web programs. Text, table, code samples. Qtime Collection, FTP Download, Gzipped - Display time as English sentence, coded in: AWK, C, ICI, Icon, JavaScript, Lite/mSQL, PHP3, Pike, Python, REBOL, Rexx, Ruby, SLang, Spanner. Tested on only Linux (all) and AmigaOS (C and Rexx versions). C#: A Language Alternative or Just J--?, Part 1 - Compares C# to Java, describes features and design trade-offs, places C# in context of broader Microsoft .Net strategy. Text, tables, code samples, links. By Mark Johnson. First article of 2-part series. [JavaWorld] Simple Programs in Various Different Programming Languages - Common algorithms and other sample code in the languages: Bash and Bourne shells, C/C++, Java, MATLAB/Octave, Perl, Python, Ruby, Scheme. What Languages Fix - Compares many languages in brief text, describes each by the problem it fixes. [Paul Graham] Lisp as an Alternative to Java - Brief text on comparisons of C, C++, Java, Lisp, Ron Garret / Erann Gat study, with conforming example program Lisp source code; very useful links. Lisp as an Alternative to Java - Ron Garret / Erann Gat comparison, starts from 1999 Prechelt study results, adds many insights; as text, a few tables. [Intelligence] Accumulator Generator - Compares canonical solutions to same problem as code samples in: C++, Dylan, E, Erlang, Haskell, JavaScript, Lisp (Arc, Common, Goo, Scheme), Lua, Maple, Mathematica, Oz-Mozart, NewtonScript, Perl, Python, REBOL, Ruby, Smalltalk, VBScript. [Paul Graham] Perl vs. Python vs. Ruby - Comparison with text, code samples, many reader comments. Michael Tsai weblog. Eiffel and Delphi Compared - Text compares differences of several main aspects. Team Eiffel: The Zen of Python, Part I - Text compares Python and Eiffel, via Tim Peters' Zen rules. Programming Languages Study - Includes: diagram, history of languages; history of language concepts; syntax across languages; Scriptometer measures scripting ease of languages; mutability and sharing of various values in various languages. Why to Move from ASM to C - Brief text compares Assembly to C; lower to higher level language. ScienceProg. Forth Versus C - Pro-Forth question and answer text, some questions have several answers. Forth and Not C - Pro-Forth text explains why C is used more than Forth. Multi-Core Ant Colony Optimization for TSP in Erlang - Compares Erlang, GHC Haskell, Standard ML (Alice, MLton); text, tables, graphs. Java and C++ Resource Management Comparison - Detailed discussion of the techniques used in Java and C++ to implement leak free and exception safe resource management. Covers memory management, finalizers, destructors and finally blocks with examples. An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl for a Search/string-processing Program - One set of requirements, 80 implementations, coded by 74 different programmers in various languages, compared for properties: run time, memory use, source text length, comment density, program structure, reliability, effort needed. D vs Other Languages - Yes-No table with definitions compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, on: GC, functions, arrays, OOP, performance, reliability, compatibility, conditional compiling. [Digital Mars] TIOBE Programming Community Index: TPCI - Updated monthly. Shows language popularity via world-wide availability of skilled engineers, courses, 3rd party vendors. Calculated from search engines Google, MSN, Yahoo. Nine Language Performance Round-up: Benchmarking Math & File I/O - Small-scale benchmark test run on 9 languages or variants: Java 1.3.1 and 1.4.2, C via gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2 and via Psyco 1.1.1, 4 from Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003: Visual Basic/C#/C++/J#. Ray Tracer Language Comparison - Mini ray tracer benchmark written equivalently in C++, Java, SML, Objective Caml, Lisp, Scheme. Compares verbosity, performance; text, code samples, tables, image, graph. [Flying Frog Consultancy] Python Compared to Other Languages - Many links to comparisons involving Python. Syntax Across Languages - Operator names and syntax elements in various programming languages. Are Scripting Languages the Wave of the Future? - Programming guru, Robert Martin, on languages of the coming decade. [ITworld.com] The Computer Language Benchmarks Game - Performance measurements and source code for multiple benchmark programs in different languages; with side-by-side comparisons between any two programming language implementations, and interactive boxplot chart comparisons between any 15. An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl - By Lutz Prechelt. Neutral, quantitative analysis of 7 languages in title, for 7 variables, via 80 implementations of the same requirement set. PDF format. [IEEE Computer] University of Michigan's Language Guide - Each entry includes history, description, code examples, and references. C# Strikes a Chord - Compares 4 languages: C, C++, C#, Java. Shows family genealogy. [Dr. Dobb's Journal]
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